• PUZZLES IN GEOGRAPHY
  • People may wonder why different words are used to describe these four countries: England,
  • Wales,
  • Scotland and Northern Ireland.
  • You can clarify this question if you study British history.
  • First there was England.
  • Wales was linked to it in the thirteenth century.
  • Now when people refer to England you find Wales included as well.
  • Next England and Wales were joined to Scotland in the seventeenth century and the name was changed to "Great Britain".
  • Happily this was accomplished without conflict when King James of Scotland became King of England and Wales as well.
  • Finally the English government tried in the early twentieth century to form the United Kingdom by getting Ireland connected in the same peaceful way.
  • However,
  • the southern part of Ireland was unwilling and broke away to form its own government.
  • So only Northern Ireland joined with England,
  • Wales and Scotland to become the United Kingdom and this was shown to the world in a new flag called the Union Jack.
  • To their credit the four countries do work together in some areas (eg,
  • the currency and international relations),
  • but they still have very different institutions.
  • For example,
  • Northern Ireland,
  • England and Scotland have different educational and legal systems as well as different football teams for competitions like the World Cup!
  • England is the largest of the four countries,
  • and for convenience it is divided roughly into three zones.
  • The zone nearest France is called the South of England,
  • the middle zone is called the Midlands and the one nearest to Scotland is known as the North.
  • You find most of the population settled in the south,
  • but most of the industrial cities in the Midlands and the North of England.
  • Although,
  • nationwide,
  • these cities are not as large as those in China,
  • they have world-famous football teams and some of them even have two! It is a pity that the industrial cities built in the nineteenth century do not attract visitors.
  • For historical architecture you have to go to older but smaller towns built by the Romans.
  • There you will find out more about British history and culture.
  • The greatest historical treasure of all is London with its museums,
  • art collections,
  • theatres,
  • parks and buildings.
  • It is the centre of national government and its administration.
  • It has the oldest port built by the Romans in the first century AD,
  • the oldest building begun by the Anglo-Saxons in the 1060s and the oldest castle constructed by later Norman rulers in 1066.
  • There has been four sets of invaders of England.
  • The first invaders,
  • the Romans,
  • left their towns and roads.
  • The second,
  • the Anglo-Saxons,
  • left their language and their government.
  • The third,
  • the Vikings,
  • influenced the vocabulary and place-names of the North of England,
  • and the fourth,
  • the Normans,
  • left castles and introduced new words for food.
  • If you look around the British countryside you will find evidence of all these invaders.
  • You must keep your eyes open if you are going to make your trip to the United Kingdom enjoyable and worthwhile.
人教版高三英语必修5 Unit2 The United Kingdom听力Mp3下载
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人教版高三英语必修5 Unit2 The United Kingdom听力Mp3下载

年级:初一 时长:38分 学习人数:318099 发布时间:2015-12-06
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