常用介词的用法比较

2017-11-16 发布 985 次浏览

常用介词的用法比较

表示时间的介词


(1)at:用于表示时刻,时间的某一点,年龄,就餐时间 

at noon在午时  at night在夜间    at present目前


(2)on:用于星期几,某天,某一天的上午、下午、晚上(指具体的某一天时,一律用,也可以说是上午、下午、晚上有修饰的一律用ON),特定的时间、含day的节日

on Sunday 在星期天    

on Sunday morning 在星期天的上午  

on March 8  在3月8日


(3)in:用于表示周、月、季节、年、泛指上午、下午、晚上。

in 1999  在1999年      in November  在11月份

in summer    在夏季      in the afternoon在下午

in + 时间段:过……后(内),用于将来时

I think he will be back in an hour.

我想他一小时后就会回来。

I heard that she would be back in a month.我听说她一个月后回来的。


(4)after:在……之后

after that ,no one should ever kill a seagull .

从那时起,任何人不得捕杀海鸥。

after + 时间段:在……之后,用于过去时。


(5)before:在……之前

Wei hua got up before 7 o’clock this morning .

今天早晨,魏华在7点之前起床了。

He won’t come back before five.


(6)by:到……为止,截止(到)……

By the time i arrived ,she had already gone .

在我到达之前,她已经走了。

The work must be finished by Friday.

We had three meetings by last Friday.


(7)for:达……之久(表示过了多少时间),可以和一般现在时,过去时,将来时连用,但是经常和完成时连用。


Florence often worked for twenty-four hours without rest .弗洛沦斯常常工作24小时而不休息。


(8)since:自……以来(表示从以前某时直到现在仍在继续)

Since + 时间段 + ago

Since + 时间点

Since + 一般过去时的句子

Since that time ,my eyes had never been very good.

从那时起,我的眼睛一直不是很好。


(9)during:在……期间

During the lifetime of one man , north America and Europe  will more further apart by nearly two meters .


在一个人的一生期间,北美洲和欧洲由于漂移,其间的距离将要增加差不多两米。


(10)through:一直……(从开始到结束)

He ,who led the united states through these years ,was shot on April 14, 1865 ,at a theater in Washington 

领导美国度过了这些年代的他,于1865年4月14日在美国华盛顿一家戏院里被人枪杀。


(11)from:从……起(时间)

the workers were made to work from 7 in the morning to 7 in the evening .工人们被迫从早7点工作到晚7点。

From…to…:从一点时间到另一点时间。


(12)within:不……超过的范围

he will arrive within an hour .他一小时内就人到。


(13)until/till: 用于某动作或状态延续到某一时间终止。Until可用于句首,而till不用于句首。不可延续则用not…until

Alice didn’t go to bed until 11 p.m. last night.

Wait here until the rain stops.

Don’t get off the bus until it stops.


表示地点的介词


(1)at:在某地点(表示比较狭窄的场所)

at school上学    at home在家  

at 320 Xinfu district 在新抚区320号  

at the station 在火车站  


(2)in:在某地(表示比较宽敞的场所)

she will arrive in shanghai at ten .10点她将到达上海。


(3)表示地点方向的on ,under ,over ,above ,below

①on:在……上面,有接触面

  on the table 在桌子上面

②above:在……上方

sometimes Juliana could hear planes above the trees.

有时朱莉安娜能听到树林上空的飞机声。

③over:在……正上方,是under的反义词

over these tombs ,they built pyramids .在这些坟墓上,他们建起了金字塔。

④under:在……下面,在……之内

the twin sisters put the basket under the tree .这姐俩把篮子放到了树下。

⑤below:在……下方,(不一定是正下方)

three thousand meters below her ,she could see nothing except the thick jungle .

3000米以下,除了茂密的丛林之外,她什么也看不见。


(4)near ,by

①near:近的,不远的(=not far)是far的反义词,near还可以指时间,in the near future在不远的将来。

Green’s lake was a small lake near his home .格林湖是他家附近的一个小湖。

②by:在……旁边,比near的距离要近

Juliana walked by the side of the river for six more long days .朱莉安娜沿着河岸又走了足足6天。


(5)between ,among ,around

①between:在两者之间

The differences between American English and British English are not very great .美国英语和英国英语之间的差别不是很大。

②among:在三者或者更多的之中

there are some American students among us .在我们中间有几个美国学校。

③around:环绕,在…..的周围,在……的四周

they arrived at a valley with high mountains all around it .他们到达了四周有高山环绕的山谷


(6)in front of ,behind(互为反义词)

①in front of :在……的前面

there is a car in front of the house .房子前面有一辆小汽车。

②behind :在…..后边

are there any cows behind the house ?房子后面有一些牛吗?


(7)in ,into ,out of 

①in:在…..之内,用于表示静止的位置 

  there are four girls in the room.房间里有4个女孩。

②into:进入,用于表示有特定终点的运动方向,通常用于表示动作的动作之后。如:come ,go ,walk ,jump ,run..

she took me from the hall into my classroom .她把我从门厅带进我的教室里边去。


(8)along ,across ,through

①along:沿着

go along Zhongshan road and turn right at the second crossing .

  沿着中山路走然后在第二个十这路口向右拐。

②across:横过(平面物体)

very slowly,the continents are moving across the face of the world .各个洲在地球表面缓缓漂移。

③through:贯通,通过

the students walked through the gate with uncle Wang .

学生们随着王叔叔通过大门。


(9)to ,for ,from

①to:到达……地点(目的地)或方向

where’s jack? he has gone to London.杰克上哪了?他去伦敦了。

②for:表示目的,为了……

do you know what he comes here for ? 你知道他为什么来这儿吗?

③from:从……地点起

how far is it from London to new york?  从伦敦到纽约有多远?


介词的用法区别


⑴ 时间或地点介词in、on、at的用法区别:

表示时间时, in表示在一段时间里(在将来时句子中则表示在一段时间之后), on表示在具体的某一天或者某天的上下午等, at表示在某个时刻或者瞬间;

表示地点时, in表示在某个范围之内, on表示在某个平面上或与一个面相接触,at则表示在某个具体的场所或地点。

如:He was born on the morning of May 10th.(他出生于五月十日的早晨)

I usually get up at 7:00 in the morning.(我通常在早上的七点钟起床)

His glasses are right on his nose.(他的眼镜就架在他的鼻子上)

He is at the cinema at the moment.(此刻他正在电影院)


⑵ after与in表示时间的用法区别:

“after+(具体时刻/从句)”表示“在…时刻之后”常用于一般时态;“in+(一段时间)”表示“在(多久) 之后”,常用于将来时态。

如:He said that he would be here after 6:00.(他说他六点钟之后会来这儿)

My father is coming back from England in about a month.(我父亲大约一个月以后从英国回来)


⑶ since与for表示时间的用法区别:

“since+(具体时刻/that-从句)”表示“自从…起一直到现在”,“for +(一段时间)”表示“总共有…之久”,都常用于完成时态;

如:Uncle Li has worked in this factory since 1970.(李叔叔自从1970年起就在这家工厂工作了)

Uncle Li has worked in this factory for over 30 years. (李叔叔在这家工厂已经工作了30多年)


⑷ by、in与with表示方式的用法区别:

都可以表示“工具、手段”,但是by主要表示“乘坐”某个交通工具或“以……方式”,在被动句中可以表示动作的执行者;in表示“使用”某种语言/文字,with表示“使用”某个具体的工具、手段。

如:We see with our eyes and walk with our feet.(我们用眼睛看东西,用双脚走路)

Please write that article(文章) in English.(请你用英语写那篇文章)

Let’s go to the zoo by taxi.(我们打的去动物园吧。)

It was written by Lao She.(那是老舍写的)


⑸ about与on的用法区别:

都可以表示“有关…”,但是about的意义比较广,而on主要表示“有关…(专题/课程)”。

如:Tom is going to give a talk on the history of America.(汤姆要作一个美国历史的报告)

They are very excited talking about the coming field trip.(他们兴致勃勃地谈论着即将来到的野外旅游)


⑹ through与across、over的用法区别:

through指“穿过…(门洞/人群/树林)”; across和over可以指“跨越…(街道/河流)”,可互换,但是表示“翻过…”时只能用over. 

如:Just then a rat (鼠)ran across the road.(就在那时一只老鼠跑过路面)

There is a bridge across/over the river.(河上有座桥)

They climbed over the mountain and arrived there ahead of time.(他们翻过大山提前到达了那里)

The visitors went through a big gate into another park.(参观者们穿过一个大门来到另一个公园)


(7)as与like的区别:

两个词都表示“像……”,但是as译为“作为……”,表示的是职业、职务、作用等事实,而like译为“像……一样”,表示外表,不是事实。

如:Let me speak to you as a father.(我以父亲的身份和你讲话。)(说话者是听者的父亲)

Let me speak to you like a father.(让我像一位父亲一样和你讲话)(说话者不是听者的父亲)


(8)at the end of、by the end of、to the end、in the end的用法区别:

at the end of…既可以表示时间也可以表示地点,译为“在…末;在…尽头”,常与过去时连用;

by the end of…只能表示时间,译为“在…前;到…为止”,常用于过去完成时;

in the end与at last基本等义,表示“终于、最后”,通常用于过去时;

to the end译为“到…的终点为止”,前面往往有表示运动或连续性的动词。

如:By the end of last term we had learned 16 units of Book III.(到上学期期末我们已经学习了第三册16个单元)

At the end of the road you can find a big white house with brown windows.(在路的尽头你能找到一幢有棕色窗户的白房子)

They left for Beijing at the end of last week.(上周末他们动身去了北京)

In the end he succeeded in the final exams.(他最终在期末考试中考及格了)

We should go on with the work to the end.(我们应该把工作干到底)

Follow this road to the end and you will see a post office.(沿这条路走到底就能看见一家邮电局)


(9)for a moment、for the moment、in a moment、at the moment的区别:

for a moment“一会儿、片刻”(=for a while),常与持续性动词连用;

for the moment“暂时、目前”,常用于现在时;in a moment“一会儿、立即、马上”(=soon; in a few minutes),一般用于将来时;

at the moment“此刻,眼下”(=now),用于现在进行时。

如:Please wait for a moment.(请稍等)

Let’s leave things as they are for the moment.(暂时就维持现状吧!)

I’ll come back in a moment.(我过会儿回来)

I am very busy at the moment.(眼下我很忙)


(10)but的问题:

用介词but引出另一个动词时,要注意:如果前面有do,后面就用原形动词,前面没有do时,后面的动词要加to。

如:I could do nothing but wait.(我什么也做不了只能等) 

They had no choice but to fight.(他们没有选择只有战斗)


(11) except,except for,besides,other than,apart from的区别

1.except和besides都可解作“除……之外”,但含义不同,except表示“从所提到的人或事物中除去,即从整体中除去一部分”,表示递减的概念,含义是否定的。besides表示“除了……之外,还有……”,指“在整体中加入一部分”,表示递加的概念,含义是肯定的。

试比较:

①We all went except him.

除他之外,我们都去了.(他没有去)

②We all went besides him.

除他之外,我们大家也都去了.(他也去了)

(1)besides常与other/more/else等词连用,except常与all/every/everyone/none/nobody/everything/nothing等总括词连用。

e.g. He had other people to take care of besides me.

All the students in Class One went to the cinema except Li Ping.

(2)若句中没有实义动词do的某种形式,except后接动词不定式,要加上to,而besides后接动词的-ing形式.

Had no choice except to obey/besides obeying his order.

(3)若句中有实义动词do的某种形式,二者后面都可以接动词原形。

She has nothing to do except/besides go with him.

(4)二者后面都可以接从句.

①Besides that he explained the theory he gave us some examples.

②He is a good student except that he sometimes comes late to school.

(5)except后面可接for(构成短语except for)或其他介词短语,而besides不能。

except for主要有三层含义:

①表示对整体主要部分的肯定和对局部的否定起部分修正主要意思的作用.

Your composition is quite excellent except for several spelling mistakes.

②表示非同类事物进行比较.

The street is empty except for several cars.

③置于句首,表达except的含义.

Except for this,everything is in order.

except for后接名(代)词,可以转移为except+从句或其他介词短语.

The climate here is good except for some rainy days.(except when it rains;except that it sometimes rains;except on the rainy days)

注意:二者用于否定句时含义相同,意思是一样的.

He did nothing besides (=except) this.

除这件事外,他什么事也没做.

2.apart from兼有besides和except for两种含义,后接名词、代词或动名词.

3.but含义与except相同,都表示递减的概念,二者在多数情况下可以互换,但用法稍有区别。

①except可以代替but,但but并不一定都可以代替except。如果句中有no、all、nobody、who、where等不定代词或疑问词时,多用but,后跟宾语从句时,多用except.

②but for含义有时与except for相同,但主要表示“要不是……”,常用于虚拟句,表示一种假设.

③but位置的变化会引起人称代词主、宾格的变化.

No one but I (=except me) knows it.

No one knows it but me (=except me).

4.other than含义与except/but相同,都表示从总体中除去一部分,后接名词、代词或不定式.

In that case,there is nothing you can do other than wait.(2001年上海春季高考题)



常用介词的用法比较讲解视频


介词相关的其他视频

介词用法讲解

高考重点词组讲解三--借助介词副词的词组记忆PART1

高考重点词组讲解三--借助介词副词的词组记忆PART2

介词(Prepositions)的用法

介词的用法


常用介词的用法比较练习题

1.I know nothing about the young lady___she is from Beijing.(2000年上海高考题)

A.except B.except for

C.except that D.besides

2.The suit fitted him well___the colour was a little brighter.(2000年上海春季高考题)

A.except for B.except that

C.except when D.besides

3.He did have nothing to eat but_____.

A.to steal some food from the shop

B.to rob some food of the shop

C.steal some food from the shop 

D.rob some food of the shop

4.Jane was quite alone in the world____an aunt in Brazil.

A.except B.except for

C.besides D.instead of 

5.____being a little largethe hat looks nice.

A.Apart from B.Except

C.But D.Besides for

6.In no country___Britain can one experience four seasons in the course of a single day.

A.other than B.anything that

C.more than D.rather than

7.He gets up early every day___Sunday.

A.besides B.except for

C.except that D.except

8.We need fifteen more people______our team to do the job.

A.besides B.except for

C.except that D.except


Key:1.C 2.B 3.A 4.B 5.A 

6.A 7.D 8.A(山东省沂南一中 魏作雷 李瑞云)

常用介词的用法比较其他相关知识点


在学习常用介词的用法比较的用法之后,您可能还需要了解下以下内容:


介词知识点快速导航
介词的分类介词短语的句法功能常用介词的用法比较
介词的固定搭配介词的省略